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28 The Nazis planned to level entire cities. In time, he ordered the creation of the Orchestra and Symphony of the General Government in its capital, Kraków. Retrieved on b Madajczyk 1970,. . 72 73 Other Polish writers, however, rejected the Soviet persuasions and instead published underground: Jadwiga Czechowiczówna, Jerzy Hordyński, Jadwiga Gamska-Łempicka, Herminia Naglerowa, Beata Obertyńska, Ostap Ortwin, Tadeusz Peiper, Teodor Parnicki, Juliusz Petry. In 1944 three giant (6 m, or 20 ft) puppets, caricatures of Hitler and Benito Mussolini, were successfully displayed in public places in Warsaw. 100 Books were also sometimes printed. 47 The last Polish book titles not already proscribed were withdrawn in 1943; even Polish prayer books were confiscated. 15 The Germans hoped that a more lenient cultural policy would lessen unrest and weaken the Polish Resistance. Paper presented at the Symposium on the occasion of the 60th Anniversary of the Warsaw Rising 1944. 45 Moreover, the sale of Jewish literature was banned throughout Poland. The state of Polish primary schools was somewhat better in the General Government, 38 though by the end of 1940, only 30 of prewar schools were operational, and only 28 of prewar Polish children attended them. 41 The educational curriculum was censored; subjects such as literature, history and geography were removed. Polish Underground State saved much of Poland's most valuable cultural treasures, and worked to salvage as many cultural institutions and artifacts as possible. 213 a b Parker, Christine. Twenty-five museums and a host of other institutions were destroyed during the war.

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Not until the end of World War I was independence restored and the nation reunited, although the drawing of boundary lines was, of necessity, a contentious issue. 115 Some artists worked directly for the Underground State, forging money and documents, 116 117 and creating anti-Nazi art (satirical posters and caricatures ) or Polish patriotic symbols (for example kotwica ). 65 The name "Poland" was banned. In their art, they "discovered a new Poland"one forever changed by the atrocities of World War II and the ensuing creation of a communist Poland. 113 Patriotic songs were written, 16 such as Siekiera, motyka, the most popular song of occupied Warsaw. Materiały sesji naukowej pod red. 54 Censorship at first targeted books that were considered to be "serious including scientific and educational texts and texts that were thought to promote Polish patriotism; only fiction that was free of anti-German overtones was permitted. 11 German propaganda specialists invited critics from neutral countries to specially organized "Polish" performances that were specifically designed to be boring or pornographic, and presented them as typical Polish cultural activities. 2 Many treasures of Polish culture including memorials, plaques and monuments to national heroes (e.g., Kraków's Adam Mickiewicz monument ) were destroyed. 123 There were artists who performed for the Polish forces in the West as well as for the Polish forces in the East.

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were torn down. 87 Students at the underground schools were often also members of the Polish resistance. 240 (in Polish Cholewa-Selo, Anna (2005 Muza i Jutrzenka. 16 Other items were also printed, such as patriotic posters or fake German administration posters, ordering the Germans to evacuate Poland or telling Poles to register household cats. 123 Madajczyk 1970,. . Retrieved on Kisling 2001,. . 6 Destruction of Polish culture edit German occupation edit Policy edit Germany's policy toward the Polish nation and its culture evolved during the course of the war. 22 32 During World War II Poland lost 39 to 45 of its physicians and dentists, 26 to 57 of its lawyers, 15 to 30 of its teachers, 30 to 40 of its scientists and university professors, and 18 to 28 of its clergy. 215, 221 Salmonowicz 1994,. . 189 a b Salmonowicz 1994,. . (in Polish) Sławomir Sieradzki, Niemiecki koń trojański, Wprost (nr 38/03). 10 Shuttered museums were replaced by occasional art exhibitions that frequently conveyed propagandist themes.


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227 Salmonowicz 1994,. . 106 Visual arts and music edit With the censorship of Polish theater (and the virtual end of the Polish radio and film industry 108 underground theaters were created, primarily in Warsaw and Kraków, with shows presented in various underground venues. Announcement of an art exhibition in the Sukiennice Cloth Hall : "How German artists see the General Government" The Germans prohibited publication of any regular Polish-language book, literary study or scholarly paper. 72 73 They included Jerzy Borejsza, Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński, Kazimierz Brandys, Janina Broniewska, Jan Brzoza, Teodor Bujnicki, Leon Chwistek, Zuzanna Ginczanka, Halina Górska, Mieczysław Jastrun, Stefan Jędrychowski, Stanisław Jerzy Lec, Tadeusz Łopalewski, Juliusz Kleiner, Jan Kott, Jalu Kurek, Karol Kuryluk, Leopold. 9 14 The policy was relaxed somewhat in the final years of occupation (194344 in view of German military defeats eskorte aust agder shemale escorts oslo and the approaching Eastern Front. 67 The Soviets sought to recruit Polish left-wing intellectuals who were willing to cooperate. 91 Throughout Poland, many eskorte forum norske nakenmodell other universities and institutions of higher education (of music, theater, arts, and others) continued their classes throughout the war. 11 One of the Department's earliest decrees prohibited the organization of all but the most "primitive" of cultural activities without the Department's prior approval. 115 All of these activities were supported by the Underground State's Department of Culture. Lillian (2003 Holocaust literature: an encyclopedia of writers and their work, Taylor Francis, isbn Lerski, Jerzy Jan ; Wróbel, Piotr; Kozicki, Richard.



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Cultural life was vibrant among both soldiers and the civilian population, with theaters, cinemas, post offices, newspapers and similar activities available. 4 The Soviet authorities regarded service to the prewar Polish state as a "crime against revolution" 61 and "counter-revolutionary activity" 62 and arrested many members of the Polish intelligentsia, politicians, civil servants and academics, as well as ordinary persons. 96 It was perceived as a much more serious issue in the annexed territories, as it hindered the process of Germanization; involvement in the underground education in those territories was much more likely to result in a sentence to a concentration camp. 38 44 The new educational aims for Poles included convincing them that their national fate was hopeless, and teaching them to be submissive and respectful to Germans. Retrieved on b Raack 1995,. . 2 37 48 Censorship and propaganda edit Kraków, 1941. 50 Mere possession of such books was illegal and punishable by imprisonment. 122 Culture in exile edit Polish artists also worked abroad, outside of occupied Europe. 7 In March 1940, all cultural activities came under the control of the General Government's Department of People's Education and Propaganda ( Abteilung für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda whose name was changed a year later to the "Chief Propaganda Department" ( Hauptabteilung Propaganda ). All institutions of the dismantled Polish state, including the Lwów University, were closed, then reopened, mostly with new Russian directors. 135 a b c Madajczyk 1970,. . Ze studiów nad typologią portretu renesansowego, in: Rafael i jego spadkobiercy.