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English used to have parity with French and German in scientific research, but now it dominates that field. Because Norman was spoken primarily by the elites and nobles, while the lower classes continued speaking Anglo-Saxon, the main influence of Norman was the introduction of a wide range of loanwords related to politics, legislation and prestigious social domains. Bosworth, Joseph ; Toller,. Syntax In the English sentence The cat sat on the mat, the subject is the cat (a NP the verb is sat, and on the mat is a prepositional phrase (composed of an NP the mat, and headed by the preposition on ). French words from various periods of the development of French now make up one-third of the vocabulary of English. Cambridge History of the English Language. The Cambridge History of the English Language. Examples of phrasal verbs are to get up, to ask out, to back up, to give up, to get together, to hang out, to put up with, etc. English distinguishes at least seven major word classes: verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, determiners (including articles prepositions, and conjunctions. The most prominent varieties are Jamaican English and Jamaican Creole. In Kirkpatrick, Andy (ed.). Bauer, Laurie; Huddleston, Rodney. Not available As of 2016, 400 million people spoke English as their first language, and.1 billion spoke it as a secondary language. Countries such as Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and South Africa have their own standard varieties which are less often used as standards for education internationally.

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Consonant differences include the tendency to pronounce /p, t, t, k/ without aspiration (e.g.  via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.) Eagleson, Robert. What, who, where, when, why, how ) appear in a fronted position. It achieved parity with French as a language of diplomacy at the Treaty of Versailles negotiations in 1919. Finite verbal clauses are those that are formed around a verb in the present or preterit form. However English is rarely spoken as a first language, numbering only around a couple hundred-thousand people, and less than 5 of the population speak fluent English in India. Many of the grammatical features that a modern reader of Shakespeare might find quaint or archaic represent the distinct characteristics of Early Modern English. International Civil Aviation Organization (2011). Through all types of printed and electronic media, and spurred by the emergence of the United States as a global superpower, English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and professional. Prepositions have a wide range of uses in English. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London, the printing of the King James Bible and the start of the Great Vowel Shift.

Old Norse, a North Germanic language. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 103 104 English as a global language See also: Foreign language influences in English and Study of global communication English has ceased to be an "English language" in the sense of belonging only to people who are ethnically English. Lenis stops: bin bn, about bat, nib nb fortis stops: pin pn; spin spn; happy hæpi; nip np or np In RP, the lateral approximant /l has two main allophones (pronunciation variants the clear or plain. Retrieved "States with Official English Laws". Retrieved 25 February 2015. Post-Imperial English: Status Change in Former British and American Colonies. Discourse level syntax While English is a subject-prominent language, at the discourse level it tends to use a topic-comment structure, where the known information (topic) precedes the new information (comment). Many statements published before the end of the 20th century about the growth of English vocabulary over time, the dates of first use of various words in English, and the sources of English vocabulary will have to be corrected as new. But some contemporary grammars such as that of Huddleston Pullum (2002 :598600) no longer consider government of case to be the defining feature of the class of prepositions, rather defining prepositions as words that can function as the heads of prepositional phrases. There are also systematic spelling differences between British and American English.


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They can also include modifiers such as adjectives (e.g. Encyclopedia of language linguistics. Daniels, Peter.; Bright, William, eds. 64 English is the largest language by number of speakers. English has a vast vocabulary, though counting how many words any language has is impossible. "English Language Imperialism: Points of View". Linguist David Crystal estimates that non-native speakers now outnumber native speakers by a ratio of 3. English is classified as an Anglo-Frisian language because Frisian and English share other features, such as the palatalisation of consonants that were velar consonants in Proto-Germanic (see Phonological history of Old English Palatalization ). In his model, the "inner circle" countries have large communities of native speakers of English, "outer circle" countries have small communities of native speakers of English but widespread use of English as a second language in education or broadcasting or for. A similar code-switching method is used by urban native speakers of Visayan languages called Bislish. In London, the Cockney dialect was traditionally used by the lower classes, and it was long a socially stigmatised variety. Australian and New Zealand English stand out for their innovative live pussy gratis datingsider på nett vowels: many short vowels are fronted or raised, whereas many long vowels have diphthongised. 207 Over half of these words are nouns, a quarter adjectives, and a seventh verbs. Lay summary ELT Journal (7 February 2015). Shakespeare's works and Elizabethan pronunciation. Word on the Street: Debunking the Myth of a "Pure" Standard English. Formation of new words, called neologisms, based on Greek and/or Latin roots (for example television or optometry ) is a highly productive process in English and in most modern European languages, so much so that it is often difficult. The webcam chat porn norwegian girl porn personal pronouns retain a difference between subjective and objective case in most persons ( I/me, he/him, she/her, we/us, they/them ) as well as a gender and animateness distinction in the third person singular (distinguishing he/she/it ). Like Scottish and most North American accents, almost all Irish accents preserve the rhoticity which has been lost in the dialects influenced. The English system of grammatical person no longer has a distinction between formal and informal pronouns of address (the old 2nd person singular familiar pronoun thou acquired a pejorative or inferior tinge of meaning and was abandoned and. For example, in the sentence the dog did not find its bone, the clause find its bone is the complement of the negated verb did not. For example, That girl over there, she was stung by a bee, emphasises the girl by preposition, but a similar effect could be achieved by postposition, she was stung by a bee, that girl over there, where reference to the girl. The primary forms are a plain present, a third-person singular present, and a preterite (past) form. "Indiaspeak: English is our 2nd language The Times of India".

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Sextreff hedmark nakne svenske jenter English Word classes and Phrases". Mass nouns can only be pluralised through the use of a count noun classifier,.g.
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